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A micro-entrepreneur (self-entrepreneur) benefiting from the micro-enterprise or micro-social tax system must keep a lean accounting. It has no annual balance sheet to present. Only the chronological recording of receipts and purchases is required.
Obligation to keep a revenue book
The micro-entrepreneur must maintain a income book, ordered chronologically, containing the following information:
- Amount and source of revenue (identity of client or agent)
- Payment method (check, cash or other)
- Voucher references (invoice numbering, notes).
In addition, the purchase register is compulsory where the activity consists mainly of selling goods, supplies and foodstuffs for consumption on the spot or to take away, or providing accommodation.
It must summarize each year the details of the purchases made for the micro-entrepreneur activity and specify the method of payment and the references of the supporting documents (invoices, notes).
As long as the entries are not modifiable once registered, the micro-entrepreneur can:
- purchase paper books of account (revenue book and purchase register) in commerce,
- or download official templates,
- or use a specific accounting software.
The book and register may be in electronic form.
Warning : there is a cap on €1,000 beyond which it is prohibited to pay in cash.
Obligation to report turnover
The micro-entrepreneur must declare his turnover every month or every quarter. The micro-entrepreneur has the choice of periodicity.
In the absence of turnover, the micro-entrepreneur must mention €0 for the period concerned.
Penalty for breach
In the case of tax control, an unkept or incomplete tax book or procurement register may result in tax penalties.
If no turnover is reported, a penalty of €50 is applied for each missing declaration.
It is possible to regularize the status of the declaration at the end of the year. If no regularization is achieved, the micro-entrepreneur can be taxed ex officio on an increased basis. This taxation can lead to the loss of the micro-enterprise system.
As a professional, the micro-entrepreneur must give his customers an invoice at each sale or service, according to the common rules of billing..
All invoices or supporting documents relating to purchases and sales of goods or services must contain required information and be retained for 10 years after the end of the financial year.
The micro-enterprise regime may apply even if the micro-entrepreneur is subject to the VAT..
He can benefit from VAT deductiblewhich exempts it from the declaration and payment of VAT on the services or sales it performs.
The exemption on the basis of VAT shall apply, in respect of a year N, to a micro-entrepreneur subject to VAT established in France whose turnover in the year N-1 does not exceed the thresholds of VAT deductible..
The service provided or the sale made is therefore invoiced without tax (HT).
The invoice shall be marked as follows « VAT not applicable, art. 293 B of the CGI »..
When making a declaration, the micro-entrepreneur shall be entered in the National Register of Enterprises maintained by INSEE and shall obtain a Siren number, which shall serve as the identification number of the undertaking, and an APE code (the main activity of the undertaking).
The Siren number must be indicated on all commercial documents and invoices.
Penalties for non-compliance
Any failure to pay shall be subject to an administrative fine of:
- €75,000 for a natural person,
- €375,000 for a legal person.
If the first infringement is repeated within 2 years, the administrative fine shall be:
- €150,000 for a natural person,
- €750,000 for a legal person.
The micro-entrepreneur must open an account dedicated to his professional activity if his annual turnover exceeds €10,000 for 2 consecutive years.
It must be used for the following operations:
- Receive revenue
- Take out expenses and purchases related to its activity
- Debit for your remuneration, by check or by bank transfer to your personal account
- Use means of payment in the commercial name of your company (checkbook, bank card payment terminal, etc.)
- Get Credit
The use of a dedicated account is strongly recommended even below this turnover.
One person cannot create more than one self-enterprise.
However, it has the possibility to carry out several activities of a different nature within the same self-undertaking, even if they have no connection between them. For example, you may have sales and ancillary services as your main activity. In this case, the Commission must group the turnover in the revenue book according to the nature of each activity.
The micro-entrepreneur must keep an accounting for each category of activity. However, it must only complete one turnover declaration for all its activities.
Multiple activities within a micro-enterprise do not increase the turnover threshold.
In the case of several activities, the micro-entrepreneur must respect the revenue thresholds applicable to the main activity.
2019 revenue thresholds
- €170,000 for commercial activities of purchase/sale of goods, objects, supplies, catering to take away or on the spot, manufacturing of products (sewing, jewelry...) or for hosting services (hotels, bed and breakfast, rural cottages, furnished with tourism)
- €70,000 services and the liberal professions covered by BIC or BNC..
2020 revenue thresholds
- €176,200 for commercial activities of purchase/sale of goods, objects, supplies, catering to take away or on the spot, manufacturing of products (sewing, jewelry...) or for hosting services (hotels, bed and breakfast, rural cottages, furnished with tourism)
- €72,600 services and the liberal professions covered by BIC or BNC..
Please note : if you are engaged in several activities, there is no obligation to have a revenue book for each of your activities.