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Annual maintenance of heating equipment: what rules for the tenant?

Verified 02 December 2022 - Directorate for Legal and Administrative Information (Prime Minister)

As a tenant, you must have your boiler serviced annually. The boilers concerned are boilers with fuel oil, gas, wood, coal or multifuel whose power is between 4 and 400 kilowatts. This obligation also applies to your heat pump and heating device with ventilation. In the absence of maintenance, your lessor can withhold the amount of maintenance from the security deposit. The insurer may refuse to compensate you in the event of a claim.

The maintenance of heating equipment is designed to avoid the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.

This gas is invisible and odourless. It causes headaches, nausea and vertigo and can be fatal.

It is caused by poorly maintained equipment associated with poor ventilation of the dwelling.


in case of suspected intoxication, you have to air your home, stop the combustion equipment and call for help.

Who shall I contact
Who shall I contact

The maintenance obligation applies to the following equipment:

  • Fuel boiler, gas, wood, coal, multifuel with a power of between 4 and 400 kilowatts
  • Heat pump
  • Heating apparatus with ventilation

As a tenant, you must call on a heating operator of your choice to maintain your heating equipment.

However, the lease may provide that the lessor must call on a chauffeur of his choice.


for the communal facilities, it is the owner of the building or the co-owners' union who has to call on a driver of their choice.

The annual maintenance consists of checking your heating equipment and, if necessary, its cleaning and adjustment.

This interview will also evaluate the following:

  • Yield of your heating equipment
  • Good sizing of the heat generator in relation to your heating needs. This assessment is not required if the heating system and your heating needs have not changed since the last maintenance.
  • Emissions of air pollutants from your heating equipment (carbon monoxide - CO)

The heater should also check whether your heating equipment has a thermostat or not and whether it is in good working order. In addition, it must check whether the heat or cold networks are well insulated.

At the end of the maintenance visit, the driver must provide you with some advice. This advice should include the proper use of your heating equipment, possible improvements to its installation, and the potential benefits of replacing it to reduce energy consumption and polluting emissions.

The driver must provide you with a maintenance certificate within 15 days of the visit. This document can be delivered as a dematerialised (mail) form. It must be kept for a minimum period of 2 years.

The advice provided by the driver is recorded on the maintenance certificate or attached to this certificate. This advice is given for guidance only; it is not mandatory unless an abnormally high carbon monoxide content is found.

The maintenance of your heating equipment must be done every calendar.

If your equipment is replaced or new equipment is installed, 1to maintenance shall be performed no later than the calendar year following the replacement or installation.

Example :

You settled a new boiler on January 2, 2022. You must complete the 1to maintenance by 31 December 2023.

If, when measuring the CO in ambient air, a CO content between 10 ppm (part per million) and 50 ppm, the situation is estimated abnormal. The driver must inform you that further investigations are necessary regarding the drawing of the smoke pipe and the ventilation of the accommodation. These investigations may be carried out during the visit or be the subject of additional services.

If a CO greater than or equal to 50 ppm, the situation highlights a serious and immediate danger. The heater must then inform you that the heating equipment must be stopped until it is returned to service under normal operating conditions.

There is no penalty in the regulations for not having your equipment serviced annually. Therefore, no fine is applicable.

However, if you do not submit a maintenance certificate, your lessor can withhold the amount of the maintenance from the security deposit.

In the event of an accident with poorly maintained heating equipment, the insurer may also refuse to compensate you.

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