Disputes with the administration: administrative appeal, defender of rights

In the event of a dispute with an administration, you can refer the matter to the administrative judge. But you can also make a claim with that administration. There are two types of claims: an ex gratia appeal to the officer who made the decision, and a hierarchical appeal to his superior. You can also approach the Defender of Rights and, in some specific cases, a specialized mediator, to find an amicable solution.